Are Grandnieces one’s Maḥrams?

Question:

Are the granddaughters (son’s daughter/daughter’s daughter) of a man’s brothers or sisters included amongst his maḥrams?

Answer:

Yes, they are his maḥrams. [1]

[1]

فتحرم بنات الإخوة والأخوات وبنات أولاد الإخوة والأخوات وإن نزلن (رد المحتار، دار عالم الكتب، ج٤ ص٩٩

وكذا الأخوات من أي جهة كن وبنات الأخوات وإن سفلن (فتاوى قاضيخان، دار الكتب العلمية، ج١ ص٣١٦

فأما النسب فهو الرحم المحرم وهم أربعة أصناف…والصنف الثالث: الإخوة والأخوات من أي وجه كانوا: لأب وأم أو لأب أو لأم وأولاد جميعهم وإن بعدوا (النتف فى الفتاوى، مؤسسة الرسالة، ج١ ص٢٥

Is it Necessary to Sell Items Above One’s Needs to Perform Ḥajj?

Question:

A person does not have enough money to perform Ḥajj, but possesses gold and silver jewellery which if sold will be enough to cover the expenses of Ḥajj. Is it necessary to sell the jewellery and perform Ḥajj?

Answer:

The preferred view in the Ḥanafī madhhab is that if a sane and able adult Muslim, male or female, who has not yet performed the obligatory Ḥajj, has the wealth and means to safely travel and carry out the rituals of Ḥajj at the time of year when the pilgrims of his or her town normally leave for Ḥajj, it is wājib for him or her to perform Ḥajj in that year and to not postpone it. [1] For a woman, there is the added condition of a husband or maḥram willing to travel with her. Delaying it in such a situation without a valid excuse is regarded as makrūh taḥrīmī, and would amount to a minor sin if done once. However, a delay over several years would amount to a major sin. [2]

If a person of the above description possesses money or items besides his or her basic necessities (like house, conveyance, clothes, furniture etc.), and Ḥajj can be performed with that money or by selling those items, it will be wājib to perform Ḥajj in that year. [3] Gold and silver jewellery do not fall under basic necessities. [4] Hence, if one possesses enough jewellery to perform Ḥajj, it will be necessary to sell it and perform Ḥajj.

[1]

على الفور في أول سنى الوجوب وهو أول سنى الإمكان على القول الأصح عندنا، وهو قول أبي يوسف وأصح الروايتين عن أبي حنيفة (غنية الناسك

الحج واجب على الأحرار البالغين العقلاء الأصحاء إذا قدروا على الزاد والراحلة فاضلا عن المسكن وما لا بد منه وعن نفقة عياله إلى حين عوده (القدوري

فيه إشارة إلى أنه على الفور، قال فى الهداية: هذا عند أبي يوسف وعن أبي حنيفة ما يدل عليه، وعند محمد على التراخي، ورجح دليل الفور، وقال القدوري: وكان مشايخنا يقولون: هو قولهم، واعتمده المحبوبي والنسفي (التصحيح والترجيح، ص٢٠٨

وروى الحسن بن زياد عن أبي حنيفة قال: يجب الحج على كل مسلم موسر من الرجال والنساء إذا كان له ما يحج به – سوى المسكن والخادم ومتاع البيت – دراهم أو دنانير أو عروض يساوي ما يحج به ذاهبا وجائيا راجبا (عيون المسائل، ص٤٣-٤

[2]

التأخير صغيرة لأنه مكروه تحريما، وبارتكاب الصغيرة مرة لا يصير فاسقا بل بالإصرار عليها بحر (غنية الناسك

[3]

 وإن كان له مسكن فاضل لا يسكنه أو عبد لا يستخدمه أو متاع لا يمتهنه أو كتب لا يحتاج إلى استعمالها وهي من العلوم الشرعية وما يتبعها من الآلات العربية أو ثياب لا يحتاج إلى لبسها أو أرض لا يحتاج إلى غلتها أو كرم زائد على قدر التفكه بها أو حوانيت أو نحو ذلك مما لا يحتاج إليها يجب بيعها إن كان به وفاء الحج (غنية الناسك

وكذا في مناسك القارئ، ص١١ والبحر العميق ص٣٨٤ والمحيط البرهاني ج٣ ص٣٩٣ عن القدوري في شرح المختصر الكرخي وفى الهندية ج١ ص٢٤٠ ناقلا عن قاضيخان

[4]

 الحلي مال فاضل عن الحاجة الأصلية إذ الإعداد للتجمل والتزين دليل الفضل عن الحاجة الأصلية (بدائع الصنائع

An Explanation of Tasawwuf and its Practices

The following article is a translation of a section from the Urdu work, Tasawwuf Kiyā He, by Mawlānā Manzūr Nu’mānī. It comprises of a group of essays written by the author on his observations on Tasawwuf and, in particular, the practices (ashghāl) prescribed by the Sūfī guides (mashāyikh). He offers a strong argument for the need for Tasawwuf and a rationale for the specific practices designed by the scholars of Tasawwuf for spiritual reform. Although the original work comprises of essays by other authors, only those by Mawlānā Manzūr Nu’mānī are presented in this translation. His discussion and analysis is concerned mostly with the practical dimensions of Tasawwuf as they have been observed throughout history amongst its orthodox champions and handed down to its true inheritors in the present time. The other essays (which are not included in this translation) deal with Tasawwuf from its historical and academic/philosophical dimensions also. Continue Reading

The Divine Attributes: Ahlus Sunnah vs. Mujassimah

The following introductory essay delineates the basic creedal differences between Ahlus Sunnah wa l-Jamā’ah and the contemporary Salafiyyah on the subject of the divine attributes. It further seeks to support the position of Ahlus Sunnah from the Qur’ān and the statements of the pious Salaf from the first three generations of scholars, including Imāms Abū Hanīfah, Shu’bah, Sharīk, Abū ‘Awānah, Sufyān al-Thawrī, Mālik, Sufyān ibn ‘Uyaynah, Hammād ibn Salamah, Hammād ibn Zayd, Abū Yūsuf al-Qādī and Muhammad ibn al-Hasan al-Shaybānī (may Allāh have mercy on them all).

Continue Reading

I’la’ al-Sunan: The Obligation of Attending Jama’ah in the Masjid

Is performing the Fard salahs in jama’ah an obligation for men? If so, is this obligation discharged by performing them in congregation at home, in the workplace or another musalla? Or is it a further obligation to perform the jama’ah in the masjid?

‘Allamah Zafar Ahmad al-’Uthmani discusses the answers to these questions in detail in the section from his I’la’ al-Sunan translated in the file linked below. He provides a thorough analysis of the hadiths on the topic and carefully determines the position of the Hanafi madhhab from the statements of its great early jurists, like al-Halwani, Qadi Khan and al-Kasani (may Allah have mercy on them).

The translation includes the chapter of I’la’ al-Sunan that immediately follows on the valid Shar’i excuses that frees one of blame if he were to not attend the masjid for jama’ah. Continue Reading